Details

Name
Bone to Implant Surface Contact
IQbot ID
IQBOT-0015
Version
1.0.0
Research Area(s)
Orthopedics
Processing Time Expectation
Less than 4 Minutes per Image
Acquisition Hardware
Wide-Field, Optical Microscope in Bright-Field (Transmission) Mode Using a Color Mosaic CCD or Monochrome CCD with RGB Filter
Techniques, Dyes, Stains, & Proteins
Sanderson's Rapid Bone Stain (or Equivalent)
Sample Context
In Tissue
Name
Bone to Implant Surface Contact
IQbot ID
IQBOT-0015
Version
1.0.0
Research Area(s)
Orthopedics
Processing Time Expectation
Less than 4 Minutes per Image
Acquisition Hardware
Wide-Field, Optical Microscope in Bright-Field (Transmission) Mode Using a Color Mosaic CCD or Monochrome CCD with RGB Filter
Techniques, Dyes, Stains, & Proteins
Sanderson's Rapid Bone Stain (or Equivalent)
Sample Context
In Tissue

Output Parameters

 

All parameters are given in units of pixels.

 

Implant (Left/Right)
The position of the implant or spacer being analyzed (position is relative to the image itself, not any anatomical feature).
Intimal Superior: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels in contact with superior surface of the spacer.
Intimal Superior: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels in contact with the superior surface of the spacer.
Intimal Superior: ROI
The length of superior surface of the spacer used for contact assessment.
Intimal Inferior: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels in contact with the inferior surface of spacer.
Intimal Inferior: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels in contact with the inferior surface of spacer.
Intimal Inferior: ROI
The length of the inferior surface of the spacer used for contact assessment.
Intimal Interdisc: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels in contact with the interdiscal surface of the spacer.
Intimal Interdisc: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels in contact with the interdiscal surface of spacer.
Intimal Interdisc: ROI
The length of the interdiscal surface of the spacer used for contact assessment.
Intimal Graft Slot: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels in contact with the graft slot between spacers.
Intimal Graft Slot: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels in contact with the graft slot between spacers.
Intimal Graft Slot: ROI
The length of the graft slot spacer interface used for contact assessment.
Intimal Total: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels in contact with the entire spacer surface.
Intimal Total: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels in contact with the graft slot between spacers.
Intimal Total: ROI
The length of the graft slot spacer interface used for contact assessment.
On-Growth Superior: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels within 25 pixels of the superior surface of the spacer.
On-Growth Superior: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels within 25 pixels of the superior surface of the spacer.
On-Growth Superior: ROI
The area adjacent to the superior surface of the spacer used for on-growth assessment (a 25 pixel distance from the surface).
On-Growth Inferior: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels within 25 pixels of the inferior surface of the spacer.
On-Growth Inferior: Cart
The area adjacent to the inferior surface of the spacer used for on-growth assessment (a 25 pixel distance from surface).
On-Growth Interdisc: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels within 25 pixels of the interdiscal surface of the spacer.
On-Growth Interdisc: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels within 25 pixels from the interdiscal surface of the spacer.
On-Growth Interdisc: ROI
The area adjacent to the interdiscal surface of the spacer used for on-growth assessment (a 25 pixel distance from the surface).
On-Growth Graft Slot: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels within 25 pixels of the graft slot interface of the spacer.
On-Growth Graft Slot: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels within 25 pixels of the graft slot interface of the spacer.
On-Growth Graft Slot: ROI
The area adjacent to the graft slot surface of the spacer used for on-growth assessment (a 25 pixel distance from the surface).
On-Growth Total: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels within 25 pixels of the spacer surface.
On-Growth Total: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels within 25 pixels of the spacer surface.
On-Growth Total: ROI
The area adjacent to the surface of the spacer used for on-growth assessment (a 25 pixel distance from the surface).
Integration: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels within the spacer.
Integration: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels within the spacer.
Integration: ROI
The area adjacent to the surface of the spacer used for on-growth assessment (a 25 pixel distance from the surface).
Total Image: Bone
The sum of all segmented bone pixels throughout the image.
Total Image: Cart
The sum of all segmented cartilage pixels throughout the image.
Total Image: ROI
The total area of image.

 

All parameters are given in units of pixels.

 

Implant (Left/Right)
The position of the implant or spacer being analyzed (position is relative to the image itself, not any anatomical feature).
Intimal Superior: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels in contact with superior surface of the spacer.
Intimal Superior: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels in contact with the superior surface of the spacer.
Intimal Superior: ROI
The length of superior surface of the spacer used for contact assessment.
Intimal Inferior: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels in contact with the inferior surface of spacer.
Intimal Inferior: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels in contact with the inferior surface of spacer.
Intimal Inferior: ROI
The length of the inferior surface of the spacer used for contact assessment.
Intimal Interdisc: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels in contact with the interdiscal surface of the spacer.
Intimal Interdisc: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels in contact with the interdiscal surface of spacer.
Intimal Interdisc: ROI
The length of the interdiscal surface of the spacer used for contact assessment.
Intimal Graft Slot: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels in contact with the graft slot between spacers.
Intimal Graft Slot: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels in contact with the graft slot between spacers.
Intimal Graft Slot: ROI
The length of the graft slot spacer interface used for contact assessment.
Intimal Total: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels in contact with the entire spacer surface.
Intimal Total: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels in contact with the graft slot between spacers.
Intimal Total: ROI
The length of the graft slot spacer interface used for contact assessment.
On-Growth Superior: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels within 25 pixels of the superior surface of the spacer.
On-Growth Superior: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels within 25 pixels of the superior surface of the spacer.
On-Growth Superior: ROI
The area adjacent to the superior surface of the spacer used for on-growth assessment (a 25 pixel distance from the surface).
On-Growth Inferior: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels within 25 pixels of the inferior surface of the spacer.
On-Growth Inferior: Cart
The area adjacent to the inferior surface of the spacer used for on-growth assessment (a 25 pixel distance from surface).
On-Growth Interdisc: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels within 25 pixels of the interdiscal surface of the spacer.
On-Growth Interdisc: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels within 25 pixels from the interdiscal surface of the spacer.
On-Growth Interdisc: ROI
The area adjacent to the interdiscal surface of the spacer used for on-growth assessment (a 25 pixel distance from the surface).
On-Growth Graft Slot: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels within 25 pixels of the graft slot interface of the spacer.
On-Growth Graft Slot: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels within 25 pixels of the graft slot interface of the spacer.
On-Growth Graft Slot: ROI
The area adjacent to the graft slot surface of the spacer used for on-growth assessment (a 25 pixel distance from the surface).
On-Growth Total: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels within 25 pixels of the spacer surface.
On-Growth Total: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels within 25 pixels of the spacer surface.
On-Growth Total: ROI
The area adjacent to the surface of the spacer used for on-growth assessment (a 25 pixel distance from the surface).
Integration: Bone
The sum of segmented bone pixels within the spacer.
Integration: Cart
The sum of segmented cartilage pixels within the spacer.
Integration: ROI
The area adjacent to the surface of the spacer used for on-growth assessment (a 25 pixel distance from the surface).
Total Image: Bone
The sum of all segmented bone pixels throughout the image.
Total Image: Cart
The sum of all segmented cartilage pixels throughout the image.
Total Image: ROI
The total area of image.

Image Acquisition


This IQbot was developed to analyze images acquired using a wide-field, optical microscope in bright-field (transmission) mode using a color mosaic CCD or monochrome CCD with RGB filter. The tissue must be stained with Sanderson's Rapid Bone stain, or an equivalent stain.

 
 

The Bone to Implant Surface Contact IQbot has been built to accommodate the following imaging types only.

 24-bit RGB
 .tif
  .tiff
  .bmp
 .jpg
.jpeg
 
 

As we reference for IQbots in general here, the Bone to Implant Surface Contact is only ultimately effective if you upload high quality images for processing. Please ensure that any images you upload follow the below guidelines specific to this IQbot.

High-Resolution:  The quality of the output data you receive is largely dependent on the input image resolution. Please provide high-resolution images to ensure that the IQbot can most effectively differentiate between features.
In-Focus:  Please produce the most in-focus images possible for analysis. Images with high background contrast will result in more accurate and useful data and overlays.
Properly Saturated:  If your submitted images are significantly undersaturated or oversaturated, it is possible that the IQbot will be unable to detect structures, or may group structures together. Please ensure that the images you upload are saturated appropriately.
Clear of Artifacts:  Please take care to avoid creating bubbles, debris, or otherwise inducing artifacts into your image. Such additional features may corrupt the resulting data.
Clear of Accessary Information:  Please do not submit images retaining any annotations, legends, timestamps, or other markings. Every part of the images that you upload will be analyzed and included in the output data.
 
 
 

If you are uncertain whether or not your images meet the quality standards for which this IQbot was validated, or have additional questions relating to image quality, please view our FAQs or contact the ImageQuantify.com support team.

 

     (216) 678-9258           help@imagequantify.com

 

Validation Information


This IQbot has been successfully validated for use, and a copy of its validation certificate accompanies the results of each order it analyzes. In accordance with general ImageQuantify.com validation procedures, this IQbot has been found to provide quantitative information equivalent to that of a manual observer, but with no variability and increased breadth of information.

 
 

The first step of the validation process was to establish the ground truth against which the IQbot’s efficacy would be compared. For the purpose of the Bone to Implant Surface Contact IQbot, ground truth was defined on a manual observer basis. Trained observers were guided through a standardized, semi-automated process to produce output data from a specially selected validation image set. This image set represented the entire range of expected output values (e.g., diverse amounts and placement of regionalized bone growth surrounding an implant). Images were presented for analysis in a randomized order and deidentified to protect against observer biases. The observer mean for each parameter measured was accepted as ground truth.

By analyzing the inter- and intraobserver variability present in the manual observation process, acceptable criteria were established so as to compare the IQbot’s output to that of a trained replacement observer. Ultimately, the IQbot’s performance proved to offer significant upgrades over manual or semi-automated analysis techniques, and validation was considered successful. Further considerations ensured that the IQbot rejected and flagged concerning image-specific outputs and performed within operation time constraints.

 

The Bone to Implant Surface Contact IQbot quantifies the amount of bone formation and cartilage in direct contact with an interbody (PEEK) spacer, internal to the spacer (in-growth), and around the spacer (on-growth evaluated 25 pixels from the surface) within specific implant and anatomical regions of histology sections stained with Sanderson’s Rapid Bone Stain. For each spacer present in an image (left or right), segmented bone and cartilage in direct contact with the surface of the spacer (labeled as "Intimal") is analyzed for the entire spacer surface ("Total"), its superior edge, inferior edge, interdisc edge, and at the interface with the graft slot (between the spacers). Similarly, for a region extending (externally) from the surface of the spacer (labeled as "On-growth"), segmented bone and cartilage within 25 pixels from surface of the spacer is analyzed for the entire spacer surface ("Total"), its superior edge, inferior edge, interdisc edge, and at the interface with the graft slot (between the spacers). Additionally, segmented bone and cartilage within the implant is analyzed (labeled as "Integration") to evaluate spacer in-growth. Lastly, bone and cartilage area is also analyzed across the entire image. To enable verification of IQbot segmentation and region of interest delineation, two pseudo-colored output images are also generated for each image analyzed. The first output image consists of segmented bone and cartilage pseudo-colored blue and green respectively upon a black background, with red outlines delineating the on-growth regions around the spacers (*_overlay_mask.tif). Similarly, the second image is generated with the same pseudo-colored regions, edge-filtered and superimposed upon the original input image (*_overlay_outline.tif).

DEMO IMAGE
IQBOT APPLIED IMAGE

 

SAMPLE DATA
Image Implant (Left/Right)
(pixels)
Intimal Superior: Bone
(pixels)
Intimal Superior: Cart
(pixels)
Intimal Superior: ROI
(pixels)
Intimal Inferior: Bone
(pixels)
Intimal Inferior: Cart
(pixels)
Intimal Inferior: ROI
(pixels)
Intimal Interdisc: Bone
(pixels)
Intimal Interdisc: Cart
(pixels)
Intimal Interdisc: ROI
(pixels)
Intimal Graft Slot: Bone
(pixels)
Intimal Graft Slot: Cart
(pixels)
Intimal Graft Slot: ROI
(pixels)
Intimal Total: Bone
(pixels)
Intimal Total: Cart
(pixels)
Intimal Total: ROI
(pixels)
On-Growth Superior: Bone
(pixels)
On-Growth Superior: Cart
(pixels)
On-Growth Superior: ROI
(pixels)
On-Growth Inferior: Bone
(pixels)
On-Growth Inferior: Cart
(pixels)
On-Growth Inferior: ROI
(pixels)
On-Growth Interdisc: Bone
(pixels)
On-Growth Interdisc: Cart
(pixels)
On-Growth Interdisc: ROI
(pixels)
On-Growth Graft Slot: Bone
(pixels)
On-Growth Graft Slot: Cart
(pixels)
On-Growth Graft Slot: ROI
(pixels)
On-Growth Total: Bone
(pixels)
On-Growth Total: Cart
(pixels)
On-Growth Total: ROI
(pixels)
Integration: Bone
(pixels)
Integration: Cart
(pixels)
Integration: ROI
(pixels)
Total Image: Bone
(pixels)
Total Image: Cart
(pixels)
Total Image: ROI
(pixels)
Sample Left 0 449 613 0 454 654 0 470 748 279 152 887 279 1525 2902 2941 4157 8295 780 5813 8603 25 9601 10322 7701 1231 11759 11447 20802 38979 291 24190 141420* 882603 271619 1920000
Right 36 469 629 0 372 658 14 172 765 454 17 896 504 1030 2948 5526 2426 8498 585 7163 8604 3362 4858 10622 8948 579 11967 18421 15026 39691 1011 5326 144225 882603 271619 1920000