Details

Name
Bone In- and On-Growth (SEM)
IQbot ID
IQBOT-0005
Version
2.0.0
Research Area(s)
Orthopedics
Processing Time Expectation
Less than 2 Minutes per Image
Acquisition Hardware
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
Techniques, Dyes, Stains, & Proteins
No Stains or Dyes Required
Sample Context
In Tissue
Name
Bone In- and On-Growth (SEM)
IQbot ID
IQBOT-0005
Version
2.0.0
Research Area(s)
Orthopedics
Processing Time Expectation
Less than 2 Minutes per Image
Acquisition Hardware
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
Techniques, Dyes, Stains, & Proteins
No Stains or Dyes Required
Sample Context
In Tissue

Output Parameters

Coating ROI Area (pixels or mm2)
The area of the region of interest (ROI) encompassing the entire porous region, spanning from the solid component of the implant to the furthest edge of the porous material. The edge of this region is a fixed distance from the solid component where that distance is representative of the space between the solid metal surface and the highest point of coating.
Coating Area (pixels or mm2)
The sum area of segmented metal coating above the solid component of the implant within the Coating ROI.
Total Bone In-Growth Area (pixels or mm2)
The sum area of segmented bone within the Coating ROI, excluding bone fragments greater than 100 μm from the surface of the segmented coating.
Percent Bone In-Growth
The Total Bone In-Growth Area divided by the Coating ROI Area, minus the Coating Area and area of all bone fragments (if any) not within 100 μm of the coating surface.
Percent Coating On-Growth Contact
The sum area of segmented bone within a 2-3 pixel dilated region around the segmented porous metal, divided by the area of the dilated region.
Coating Surface Length (pixels or mm)
The sum length of the segmented metal at the edge of the Coating ROI, facing away from the solid component and within 25% of the height of the initial Coating ROI beginning from the edge furthest away from the solid component toward the solid component.
Bone Apposition Length (pixels or mm)
The sum length of the segmented bone greater than or equal to 100 μm from the edge of the coating surface defined previously.
Percent Apposition
The ratio of Bone Apposition Length to Coating Surface Length.
Maximum Coating Depth (pixels or mm)
The maximum coating depth (thickness) or the maximum height from the solid component to the edge of the Coating ROI.
Maximum Bone Depth (pixels or mm)
The maximum depth of bone from the edge of the porous coating (edge of the Coating ROI) toward the solid component.
Bone Depth Percent
The ratio of Maximum Bone Depth to Maximum Coating Depth.
Coating ROI Area (pixels or mm2)
The area of the region of interest (ROI) encompassing the entire porous region, spanning from the solid component of the implant to the furthest edge of the porous material.
Coating Area (pixels or mm2)
The sum area of segmented metal coating above the solid component of the implant.
Total Bone In-Growth Area (pixels or mm2)
The sum area of segmented bone within the Coating ROI.
Percent Bone In-Growth
The Total Bone In-Growth Area divided by the Coating ROI Area, minus the Coating Area.
Percent Coating On-Growth Contact
The sum area of segmented bone within a 2-3 pixel dilated region around the segmented porous metal, divided by the area of the dilated region.
Coating Surface Length (pixels or mm)
The sum length of the segmented metal at the edge of the Coating ROI, furthest from the solid component.
Bone Apposition Length (pixels or mm)
The sum length of the segmented bone along the edge of the coating surface defined above.
Percent Apposition
The ratio of Bone Apposition Length to Coating Surface Length.
Maximum Coating Depth (pixels or mm)
The maximum coating depth (thickness) or the maximum height from the solid component to the edge of the Coating ROI.
Maximum Bone Depth (pixels or mm)
The maximum depth of bone from the edge of the porous coating (edge of the Coating ROI) toward the solid component.
Bone Depth Percent
The ratio of Maximum Bone Depth to Maximum Coating Depth.

Image Acquisition


This IQbot was developed to analyze images captured with a Scanning Electron Miscroscope (SEM). Approximately 2 mm in width should be captured in each image. Sections imaged and subsequently submitted for analysis should depict both the metal porous material and bone. The solid component should be visible and oriented nearly parallel to the top edge of the image. The edge of the porous component should be located toward the bottom of the image and fully contained within the image.

 
 

The Bone In- and On-Growth (SEM) IQbot has been built to accommodate the following imaging types only.

   .tif 
  .tiff
  .bmp
 jpeg SEM images (8-bit grayscale)
 
 

As we reference for IQbots in general here, the Bone In- and On-Growth (SEM) IQbot is only ultimately effective if you upload high quality images for processing. Please ensure that any images you upload follow the below guidelines specific to this IQbot.

High-Resolution:  The quality of the output data you receive is largely dependent on the input image resolution. Please provide high-resolution images to ensure that the IQbot can most effectively differentiate between features.
In-Focus:  Please produce the most in-focus images possible for analysis. Images with high background contrast will result in more accurate and useful data and overlays.
Properly Saturated:  If your submitted images are significantly undersaturated or oversaturated, it is possible that the IQbot will be unable to detect structures, or may group structures together. Please ensure that the images you upload are saturated appropriately.
Clear of Artifacts:  Please take care to avoid creating bubbles, debris, or otherwise inducing artifacts into your image. Such additional features may corrupt the resulting data.
Clear of Accessary Information:  Please do not submit images retaining any annotations, legends, timestamps, or other markings. Every part of the images that you upload will be analyzed and included in the output data.
 
 
 

If you are uncertain whether or not your images meet the quality standards for which this IQbot was validated, or have additional questions relating to image quality, please view our FAQs or contact the ImageQuantify.com support team.

 

     (216) 678-9258           help@imagequantify.com

 

Validation Information


This IQbot has been successfully validated for use, and a copy of its validation certificate accompanies the results of each order it analyzes. In accordance with general ImageQuantify.com validation procedures, this IQbot has been found to provide quantitative information equivalent to that of a manual observer, but with no variability and increased breadth of information.

 
 

The first step of the validation process was to establish the ground truth against which the IQbot’s efficacy would be compared. For the purpose of the Bone In- and On-Growth (SEM) IQbot, ground truth was defined on a manual observer basis. Trained observers were guided through a standardized, semi-automated process to produce output data from a specially selected validation image set. This image set represented the entire range of expected output values (e.g., diverse amounts of bone in- and on-growth allowed by the porous material). Images were presented for analysis in a randomized order and deidentified to protect against observer biases. The observer mean for each parameter measured was accepted as ground truth.

By analyzing the inter- and intraobserver variability present in the manual observation process, acceptable criteria were established so as to compare the IQbot’s output to that of a trained replacement observer. Ultimately, the IQbot’s performance proved to offer significant upgrades over manual or semi-automated analysis techniques, and validation was considered successful. Further considerations ensured that the IQbot rejected and flagged concerning image-specific outputs and performed within operation time constraints.

 

The purpose of the Bone In- and On-Growth IQbot for SEM is to quantitatively characterize the amount and extent of native bone integration into explanted porous metallic/ceramic implants in images acquired using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The IQbot provides the following output metrics: (1) the area of metal coating above the solid component of the implant (Coating Area); (2) the rectangular region of interest encompassing the entire porous region spanning from the solid component of the implant to the furthest edge of the porous material (Coating ROI Area); (3) total bone area within the Coating ROI, after removing bone fragments greater than 100 μm from the porous coating surface (Bone In-Growth Area); (4) the percent bone on-growth (% Coating Bone On-Growth) determined by segmenting the porous metal independent of its location from the solid component, dilating its boundary by 2-3 pixels, and evaluating segmented bone within that region normalized to the total dilated metal area; (5) the length of the coating surface (i.e., the sum of metal pixels at the edge of the Coating ROI facing away from the solid component) within a rectangular ROI that is 25% of the height of the Coating ROI beginning at the edge located furthest away from the solid component (Coating Surface Length); (6) the bone apposition length, or the sum of the bone pixels greater than or equal to 100 μm from the edge of the coating surface defined previously (Bone Apposition Length); (7) the percent bone apposition (% Apposition), or length of apposed bone divided by the coating length; (8) the maximum depth of bone from the edge of the porous coating (edge of the Coating ROI) (Max Bone Depth); (9) the maximum coating depth, or the maximum height from the solid component to the edge of the Coating ROI (Coating Max Depth); and (10) the maximal bone depth relative to the maximum coating height (Bone Depth Percent). Additional outputs include pseudo-colored images in which (a) the Coating ROI Area is delineated with a red outline (*_overlay_roi.tif), (b) the metal coating apposition surface delineated with a red outline (*_overlay_surface.tif), and (c) the bone in-growth is delineated in blue, the porous coating is presented in green, on-growth surfaces are shown in red, and bone apposition surfaces are pseudo-colored yellow (*_overlay.tif).

DEMO IMAGE
IQBOT APPLIED IMAGE

 

SAMPLE DATA
Image Coating ROI Area
(pixels or mm2)
Coating Area
(pixels or mm2)
Total Bone In-Growth Area
(pixels or mm2)
Percent Bone In-Growth Percent Coating On-Growth Contact Coating Surface Length
(pixels or mm)
Bone Apposition Length
(pixels or mm)
Percent Apposition Maximum Coating Depth
(pixels or mm)
Maximum Bone Depth
(pixels or mm)
Bone Depth Percent
Sample 2.882 1.352 0.483 31.54 22.51 2.163 1.271 58.77 1.287 1.278 99.30